What is Coronavirus?
The coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause infections in humans and various animals, including birds and mammals such as camels, cats, bats . Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. They are widespread in nature and can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more serious illnesses such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) .
How can you get sick with Covid-19?The disease develops in people infected with the SARS CoV-2 respiratory virus. The main mode of transmission is represented by the droplets of the breath ( droplets ) of infected people, within which the virus can lurk .
What are the symptoms of Covid-19?
The most frequent symptoms of Covid-19 are cough , fever , sore throat , fatigue , runny nose and the onset of breathing difficulties . However, many patients have reported other possible manifestations of the disease: loss of smell and taste , conjunctivitis , diarrhea . In the face of these manifestations, you should always contact your doctor to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of Covid-19.
What can I do to protect myself?
Always carry respiratory protection devices with you and wear them indoors and in all open-air places when the condition of isolation from non-cohabiting people cannot be continuously guaranteed.
The use of respiratory protection devices (masks) is strongly recommended even inside private homes in the presence of non-cohabiting people.
- Maintain an interpersonal safety distance of at least one meter.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water or in the absence with hydroalcoholic solutions for hand washing.
- Avoid crowded places, closed rooms with poor ventilation and close range.
- Ensure good ventilation of enclosed spaces, including homes and offices.
- Avoid hugs and handshakes.
- Avoid mixed use of bottles and glasses, especially during sports.
- Do not touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands.
- Clean the surfaces with soap and water or common neutral detergents to remove dirt and then disinfect them with sodium hypochlorite solutions (bleach / bleach) or alcohol adequately diluted.
What are the rules for hand disinfection / washing?
Hand washing is intended to ensure adequate hand cleaning and hygiene through a mechanical action. The frequent washing and hand disinfection are crucial to prevent infection. To be sure that you have eventually eliminated the coronavirus from the surfaces of your hands, you need to wash them with soap and water for at least twenty seconds. If you are out of the house and do not have the opportunity to wash them frequently (a fundamental step even after contact with potentially contaminated objects and surfaces), you can use a 60 percent alcohol- based hand sanitizer . It is also essential to avoid close contact (1-2 meters, depending on whether you are outdoors or indoors) with people who do not live together. For the same reason, it is better to avoid hugs , thehandshakes and the mixed use of bottles and glasses .
It is important to wash your hands:
touching eyes / nose / mouth (to smoke, use contact lenses, brush teeth, etc.)
Before and after
having used the toilets
having touched a sick person
having treated or touched a wound
changing a baby's diaper
having touched an animal
having handled food, especially if it is raw.
having attended public places (shops, clinics, stations, gyms, schools, cinemas, buses, offices, etc.) and, in general, as soon as you return home
having handled the garbage
having used money.
It is also a good habit to cough / sneeze in the crook of the elbow, so as not to contaminate the hands, with which objects and surfaces can subsequently be contaminated, for example by touching the mobile phone, a door handle, etc.
Can one become infected with an apparently healthy person?
Although scientific data shows that the virus is mainly transmitted by people with symptoms and that the spread is highest within the first three days of their onset, infected people can be contagious as early as 24-48 hours after infection. and in which specific symptoms have not yet manifested.
That is: in the incubation period , estimated between 2 and 14 days (with a peak between days 5 and 7). Therefore it is possible that people affected by Covid-19 can transmit the virus even in the pre-symptomatic phase .
What are serological tests used for?
Unlike the swab , a laboratory test used to identify the presence of the coronavirus inside the respiratory mucous membranes , serological tests are used to identify all those people who have come into contact with the virus . Thus, while the former provides a snapshot of the infection , the latter "tell" the story of the disease .Through serological tests it is possible to identify the antibodies produced by our immune system in response to the virus.
How is Covid-19 treated?
At the moment, there is no specific therapy for Covid-19 . In recent months, doctors have resorted to symptomatic medications for milder cases. Drugs available for other conditions have been used in more severe patients. Specifically: antivirals, antimalarials, immunosuppressants, specific antibodies ( plasma therapy ) and anticoagulants . Many of these treatments have been included in experimental protocols, the results of which will be announced in the coming months.